Waterpower – the domestic power source
As one of the world’s largest archipelagos, Indonesia has enormous renewable potential, but also faces considerable geographical and administrative challenges.
Natural and urban, densely populated and sparse, abundant in rainfall but experiencing dry seasons, Indonesia presents an interesting paradox.
8 GW of undeveloped hydropower potential
More than 80% of the country’s current energy mix comes from fossil fuels, yet it has enormous clean-power potential and an ambitious renewable-energy target of 23% by 2025. Currently, Indonesia’s total power generation is estimated to be 56.5 GW, with renewables representing just 12% of the energy mix.
“It is estimated that there is currently about 8 GW of economically viable undeveloped hydropower potential,” explains Abhisheck Mehta, Country Manager for Voith Hydro Indonesia, adding that the need to commercialize inexpensive domestic power sources, such as hydropower, is becoming key for Indonesia’s economic development.
Despite the potential, a host of barriers stand in in the way of Indonesia’s hydropower development. For one, the remote locations of many sites pose technical and fiscal difficulties in connecting to the national transmission grid. “Obtaining financing for capital-intensive projects, and administrative hurdles, can also be significant,” adds Mehta.
2,200 dams for attractive Small and Mini Hydro solutions
In effect, while over 90% of Indonesia’s installed hydropower base comprises large hydro, with projects in constant development, Small Hydro is an attractive and viable option – particularly where funding is concerned and infrastructure already exists. According to Mehta, Indonesia currently has as many as 2,200 dams, primarily used for flood control and irrigation, which could lend themselves to Small Hydro and Mini Hydro solutions.
Voith helps to realize
In delivering its innovative hydropower solutions, Voith Hydro has illustrated its commitment to Indonesia’s clean-energy sector.
Voith delivered the complete electromechanical equipment of the Small Hydro plant Pusaka, including generators, automation technology, all associated systems and two horizontal Francis turbines, which had to be adapted to suit the unique Indonesian climate. “The original cooling water design was an open-loop system,” explains Cahyono Kusumo Aji, Deputy Manager at Pusaka. “According to our team, this had some drawbacks. During the rainy season, the condition of the water is not particularly good and would have seriously affected our operations.” In collaboration with Voith, the design was changed to a closed-loop system.
|Customer||PT Medco Power, Indonesia|
|Location||Cianjur Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia|
|Units||2 horizontal Francis turbines|
|Output||2 x 4.4 MW|
In the Tanggamus Regency on Sumatra another Voith Small Hydro project was commissioned. Voith equipped the run-of-river Semangka Hydropower Plant with two new generating units, comprising vertical Francis turbines. With a total output of 56.6 MW, Semangka is contributing to reliable, stable and clean electricity and bringing Indonesia a step closer to meeting its renewable-energy targets.
|Customer||PT Tanggamus Electric Power|
|Location||Tanggamus Regency, Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia|
|Units||2 vertical Francis turbines|
|Output||2 x 28.3 MW|
In the northern part of Sumatra, both Francis units of the Small Hydro plant Karai faced erosion and cavitation issues, a reduced power output, and heavy leakage through the shaft seal. “We had a problem with affordability, which drew us to modernize our plant to a better quality of product,” says Mohammad Riza Husni, President Director at Bumi Investco Energi, parent company of PT Global Hidro Energi.
Voith used its HyService solutions to replace the runner, minimizing cavitation and erosion, while also replacing the complete distributor assembly and thrust relief pipes, and delivering a new shaft seal design. A special coating was also applied to turbine parts. The modernization secured a 25% increase in revenue.
|Customer||PT Global Hidro Energi|
|Location||Kariahan Usang Village, Simalungun Regency, North Sumatra|
|Units||2 Francis turbines|
|Output||2 x 4.44 MW|
In 2019, Java’s Small Hydro plant Serayu is set to receive Indonesia’s first ever StreamDiver. The compact, modular and highly reliable design of the unit – six of which will be incorporated into the existing weir infrastructure – eliminated the need to create a diversion channel at the site, making it an attractive and fiscally viable way for the plant to capitalize on its hydropower potential.
|Customer||PT Daya Mulia Turangga|
|Location||Banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia|
|Units||6 StreamDiver units|
|Output||6 x 762.7 kW|
Corporate social responsibility initiative
The Francis turbines of the Semangka hydropower plant were not the only object in the area to be modernized. As part of a corporate social responsibility initiative, dubbed “Asa” (the Indonesian word for “hope”) Voith also turned its attention to the local Printis school – the only source of education for children in the area. The school, located in Umbul Seno village, seven kilometers from the Semangka Powerhouse and attended by 22 students, aged seven to nine, was ill equipped and lacked basic infrastructure. Through the Asa initiative, Voith provided new tables and chairs for the teacher and children, as well as a large wooden cabinet for books and supplies. The initiative created a bond between Voith personnel and the local community, strengthening collaboration on the Semangka hydropower project.